Have You Seen A Dinosaur?
Dinosaurs, according to the prevailing scientific theory, met their dramatic end after an enormous asteroid hit the Earth near what is now Mexico. It’s easy to imagine that this mass extinction, known today as the Cretaceous-Tertiary Mass Extinction event, or K-T event, left nothing recognizable alive on Earth. The impact itself was catastrophic, though it probably had some help from volcanoes and other factors in wiping out 70 percent of all life on the planet
Dinosaurs Co-existing With Man
According to the belief commonly held by evolutionists, no advanced mammals were present during the “age of the dinosaurs.” Artists’ reconstructions generally show the huge reptiles living in swamps, surrounded only by other species of dinosaurs. The late evolutionary paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson suggested that the only mammals that had evolved up to that point in time (even at the very end of the Cretaceous period) were supposedly “small, mostly about mouse-sized, and rare”. In his book, ‘Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History’, Stephen J. Gould addressed the same issue when he wrote:
Mammals evolved at the end of the Triassic, at the same time as dinosaurs, or just a tad later. Mammals spent their first hundred million years—two-thirds of their total history—as small creatures living in the nooks and crannies of a dinosaur’s world. Their sixty million years of success following the demise of the dinosaurs has been something of an afterthought.
It thus is completely unthinkable, in evolutionary terms, that dinosaurs and advanced mammals (like elephants or giraffes) could have co-existed.
The Doheny Expedition
In the late 1800’s, evolutionist Samuel Hubbard, honorary curator of archaeology at the Museum fo Natural History in Oakland, California, was excavating ancient Indian dwellings in the Hava Supai Canyon in Arizona. On the walls of the canyon where the indians’ ancestors once lived, Dr. Hubbard found elegant drawings of an elephant, an Ibex, a dinosaur and other animals. He stated concerning the dinosaur drawing: “taken all in all, the proportions are good.” He further suggested that the huge reptile is “depicted in the attitude in which man would be most likely to see it – reared on its hind legs, balancing with the long tail, either feeding or in a fighting position, possibly defending itself against a party of men.” (as quoted in Verril, 1954, pp.155ff.)
Hubbard also noted: The fact that some prehistoric man made a pictograph of a dinosaur on the walls of this canyon upsets completely all of our theories regarding the antiquity of man…. The fact that the animal is upright and balanced on its tail would seem to indicate that the prehistoric artist must have seen it alive.
Left: Edmontosaurus (courtesy of Paul S. Taylor, Eden Communications). Right: Petroglyph discovered by Dr. Samuel Hubbard in Havai Supai Canyon (courtesy of http://www.bible.ca).
Mammals Eating Dinosaurs In China?
A discovery reported in the January 13, 2005, issue of Nature challenged everything evolutionists have ever maintained regarding dinosaurs and mammals. The Associated Press reported: “Villagers digging in China’s rich fossil beds have uncovered the preserved remains of a tiny dinosaur in the belly of a mammal, a startling discovery for scientists who have long believed early mammals couldn’t possibly attack and eat a dinosaur”
Not only do we now have additional proof of mammals coexisting with dinosaurs, but we also have scientific evidence of a large mammal eating a dinosaur! The authors discovered the fossil remains of two different mammals. One was 50% larger than previous mammal fossils that were considered to be living with the dinosaurs, and was named Repenomamus Giganticus. The other, Repenomamus Robustus, was fully intact—and had a dinosaur in its stomach. Yaoming Hu and his colleagues noted:
During preparation of the specimen a patch of small bones was revealed within the ribcage, on the ventral sides of the posterior left thoracic ribs and vertebrae, where the stomach is positioned in extant mammals. Unduplicated dentition [teeth—BH], limb bones and phalanges [bones of the toes or “fingers”—] in the patch confirm that these bones belong to a juvenile individual of Psittacosaurus, an herbivorous dinosaur that is common in Jehol Biota. The serrated teeth in the patched skeleton are typical of juvenile Psittacosaurus. The skull and most of the skeleton of the juvenile Psittacosaurus are broken, disarticulated and displaced, in contrast to the preservation of the Repenomamus Robustus skeleton, which is essentially in its original anatomical relation. Although fragmentary, the bones of the Psittacosaurus are packed in a restricted area. These conditions indicate that the juvenile skeleton of Psittacosaurus is the remaining stomach contents of the mammal.
To complicate matters, researchers reported in the April 18, 2002 issue of Nature, one of the premier science journals in the world, that they now have determined that the “last common ancestor of extant primates” existed (as dated by evolutionary dating methods) 85 million years ago. Since dinosaurs are supposed to have died out 65 million years ago, that means the primate would have lived with the dinosaurs for at least 20 million years. One of the co-authors of the Nature paper, Christophe Soligo of London’s Natural History Museum, stated in regard to the find: “What we demonstrate is that modern orders of mammals appeared well before dinosaurs disappeared…”. So much for the belief that mammals evolved “just a tad later” than the dinosaurs.
While Steven Spielberg prepared for the premiere of his $50 million blockbuster dinosaur film Jurassic Park in early 1993, equally spectacular dinosaur-type news was flowing in from around the world.
From China there were claims that more than 1,000 people had seen a dinosaur-like monster in two sightings around Sayram Lake in Xinjiang.
From Scotland came the latest Loch Ness monster sighting: Mrs Edna MacInnes reported on June 24 that she had seen a 15-metre-long creature with a neck like a giraffe in Loch Ness.
From Canada, Professor P. LeBlond of the University of British Columbia told a meeting of zoologists about the many sightings of ‘Caddy’—short for Cadborosaurus—around the British Columbia coast and as far south as Oregon. The remains of a three-metre juvenile ‘Caddy’ have actually been found in the stomach of a whale.
People around the world have been asking if scientists could really resurrect these robust reptiles from DNA extracted from a preserved insect allegedly more than 100 million years old.
The answer is No!
Despite the hype, Jurassic Park is fiction. Scientists have not yet found dinosaur DNA in any amber-preserved insects. But if they did, even evolutionists admit that the DNA, a notoriously unstable molecule, would be too degraded to carry a complete dinosaur genetic blueprint.
In fact, The rate at which DNA breaks down in a laboratory is such that ‘no DNA would remain intact much beyond 10,000 years.
That is enough to kill the theory. But, in addition, reconstructing the genetic blueprint of an extinct creature poses seemingly insurmountable problems. Molecular geneticist Russell Higuchi compares the task to ‘finding an encyclopaedia ripped into shreds and written in a language you barely comprehend, and having to reassemble it in the dark, without using your hands.’
About four million fragments would have to be linked in the correct order—without knowing what that order was!
So, despite what you hear about multi-million-year-old insects being found, DNA in them means the insect can be only thousands of years old at most. And how to bring the creature back to life is something science today has no idea how to do—a fact overlooked in Jurassic Park.
Dinosaurs were, of course, the most famous of the life forms that died out post-asteroid. But other reptilian animals became extinct as well. These included aquatic reptiles like plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs and mosasaurs. The first vertebrate animals ever to learn to fly by flapping their wings — the pterosaurs — vanished after the K-T event, too. So did 90 percent of algae species and vast numbers of oceanic invertebrates
But some types of animals weren’t hit nearly as hard. At least a few members of about 84 percent of marine families and 82 percent of land vertebrate families made it through. In fact, so many life forms survived the K-T event that it would take a textbook to describe them all. Many of these animals have descendants that live today.
Today, we share the globe with roughly 10,000 species of living dinosaur.
Though the dinosaurian origins of birds was initially postulated when dinosaurs were first becoming scientifically investigated, it wasn’t until the latter half of the 20th century that the possibility met some serious discussion and even later that it became commonly accepted.
Birds today are ancestors to dinosaurs and are related to the Archaeopteryx, Sinosauropteryx, Caudipteryx, Sinornithosaurus, Microraptor and Protarchaeopteryx.
- Archaeopteryx (shown below) is a genus of early bird that is transitional between feathered dinosaurs and modern birds. Archaeopteryx lived in the Late Jurassic period around 150 million years ago, in what is now southern Germany during a time when Europe was an archipelago of islands in a shallow warm tropical sea, much closer to the equator than it is now. Archaeopteryx could grow to about 0.5 m (1 ft 8 in) in length. Despite its small size, broad wings, and inferred ability to fly or glide, Archaeopteryx has more in common with other small Mesozoic dinosaurs than it does with modern birds. Since the late nineteenth century, it had been generally accepted by palaeontologists, and celebrated in lay reference works, as being the oldest known bird (member of the group Avialae). However, older potential avialans have since been identified, including Anchiornis, Xiaotingia, and Aurornis.
- Sinosauropteryx (shown below) whose name means “Chinese dragon feather” was the first of the theropod dinosaurs that was found to have dino-fuzz. It was about one metre in length and had a very substantial tail with 64 bones. It had hollow leg bones, long legs and short arms.
The discovery of dino-fuzz on this and other theropod dinosaurs has led to considerable speculation about which dinosaurs had feathers. National Geographic was so enthusiastic about this that, in one issue, it published pictures of a feathered Tyrannosaurus rex (Sloan, 1999).
- Caudipteryx (shown below) was a turkey-sized animal with well-preserved feathers. This creature had feathers on the end of its short tail and beautifully preserved long symmetrical feathers attached to its very short forelimbs.
- Sinornithosaurus (shown below) is similar in size to Sinosauropteryx and is also said to have remains of proto-feathers or feather-like covering.
- Microraptor gui (shown below) has been described as a four-winged dinosaur. It had asymmetrical flight feathers on all four limbs and is considered by some to be evidence that bird ancestors where gliding creatures that lived in trees, rather than the alternative ground runners. But questions remain about how it managed to fly and how it would get off the ground if it ever landed.
- Protarchaeopteryx (shown below) had a tail with a spray of symmetrical feathers. Wing feathers have also been described for this creature. It had long hands (longer than the arms). The legs were long and powerful with three forward-facing toes.
The first mammals were monotremes, or mammals that reproduce by laying eggs. Mammals are common today, but only three monotreme species still exist. These are the duck-billed platypus and a couple of spiny anteaters, or echidnas.
Many reptile species died during the K-T event, but snakes, lizards and the crocodilians persevered. Crocodilians have been on the planet for about 240 million years. There are 23 crocodilian species today, including alligators, crocodiles and caimans. Mesozoic crocodilians were generally larger than living species.
Another prehistoric order of reptiles is the sphenodontians. Today, there is one living sphenodontian — the tuatara, which lives in New Zealand.
The Coelacanths were thought to have gone extinct 65 million years ago, until a living specimen belonging to the order was discovered in 1938.
Hagfish have existed for over 300 million years, according to the fossil record, which means they were already old when dinosaurs took over the world! Found in relatively deep waters, these animals are sometimes called slime eels, but they are not really eels, and actually, they may not even be fish at all, according to some scientists. They are very bizarre animals in all regards; they have a skull but lack a spine, and they have two brains. Almost blind, they feed at night on the carcasses of large animals (fish, cetaceans etc) which fall to the sea bottom. They owe their “slime eel” nickname to the fact that they produce a slimey substance to damage the gills of predatory fish; as a result, they have virtually no natural enemies.
The Frilled Shark, one of the most primitive sharks alive today, is a relic from the Cretaceous period, when dinosaurs ruled the Earth. Seldom seen alive, and only recently filmed for the first time, the frilled shark can grow up to 2 meters (6′ 6″) (with females being larger than males) and they live in deep waters, where they feed mostly on squid. They are not dangerous to humans, and as a matter of fact, most frilled sharks spend their whole lives without seeing a human being. Only dead or dying specimens are usually seen and recorded by fishermen or scientists.
Triops is a genus of small crustaceans in the order Notostraca (tadpole shrimp). Some species are considered living fossils, with a fossil record that reaches back to the late Carboniferous, 300 million years ago. One species, Triops longicaudatus, is commonly sold in kits as a pet.